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The Sun - big, massive, bright. Some worshiped it. Some cursed it. And a few have spent their lives studying how it works. It's so complex that predicting what it will do is extremely difficult - if not impossible. Oh, and we've spent billions of dollars studying it.
Why so much money?
Well, for all of its benefits, we have discovered the hard way that it's also a threat. Back in 1859, our sun sent out a solar flare that melted telegraph lines and burned down telegraph offices. It created magnificent auroras across our night skies and led to consternation and bewilderment among scientists. (And some thought the End was nigh.) Then, when Apollo missions landed on the moon, American astronauts found lots and lots of glass. And, some of it looked like it was created by a nova event or a superflare.
Superflares? Nova event?
"No way!" shouted the scientific community.
So, Dr. Gold's observation was consigned to the dusty back shelves of NASA. He never talked about it again.
Then, a soft-spoken Japanese astrophysicist noticed superflares coming from stars just like our own. And, like clockwork, the scientific community tried to shout him down. When they couldn't, they tried to ignore him. But, he kept doing research and publishing papers.
Finally, everyone - almost everyone - in the scientific community agrees that one day, a civilization destroying superflare will hit earth. But then they shrugged their shoulders and told themselves that this will happen many centuries in the future. So, this too is slowly being confined to the dusty back shelves of NASA.
However, the glass on the moon is still there, and new scientists have been observing nova events in our galaxy that do not conform to the accepted explanation for how and why stars explode. Stars are disappearing. Some are flashing brightly and ejecting clouds of dust. And, there's a growing suspicion that our sun could flash brightly and eject a massive cloud of dust into our solar system.
In exactly the same way that is described in the Bible.
Unfortunately, since most astrophysicists don't understand how this is possible, they scoff at the idea that our sun can produce such massive amounts of energy - enough energy to melt rocks on the moon. And, they also don't see how our sun could eject as massive shell of dust out into our solar system, that would obscure the stars. Unfortunately, they're wrong. But, before getting into that, let's take a closer look at our sun.
Compared to the little ball of rock that we call Earth, our sun is ginormous. Really big. So big, that if you ever wanted to feel insignificant, look at the sun. Or don't, 'cuz you'd go blind.
But, is our sun really all that special?
Well, it's not just special. It's perfect. The perfect size. The perfect rotation. The perfect brightness.
Prefect, that is... for sustaining life.
And, of all the stars in our universe that we can see, we have found very few that are just like our sun. Maybe just ten percent of all stars in the universe are that special G-class star, like our own. And of those, an even smaller number are the kinder, gentler version like our own. And, as we look more closely at how unique our sun is, you'll see God's Hand in all of what we are talking about.
Yes, God could have created the universe differently, but it's hard to see how you and I could be alive if He did. According the laws and universal constants that we know, every planet and star has been precisely placed to make sure that life on our little ball of rock flourishes. If our sun was brighter, dimmer, bigger or smaller, the prefect balance of life on earth would be impossible.
Even the rotation of our sun is important. If it rotated much faster than the current 27 days, we would have less rain and more solar flares. If it rotated more slowly, we would have more cosmic rays hitting earth and a lot more cancer.
Oh, and what does the sun's rotation have to do with rain?
We have discovered that there is a direct correlation between cosmic rays and rainfall. Cosmic rays are protons and atomic nuclei that come from our sun and from other stars in our universe. And yes, without the cosmic rays from other stars, we would have less rain. When cosmic rays hit rain clouds, they start a process called ice nucleation which then results in rainfall.
If the sun rotated faster, it would create a stronger magnetic field and reduce the amount of cosmic rays that earth receives. Worse, a faster rotation would also lead to more solar flares and the kind of radiation that you and I just can't live with. Later, we'll be talking about stars like ours that have a faster rotation.
Also, the north and south poles of our sun flip back and forth every eleven years, leading to something that we call Solar Variation. If this eleven year cycle was longer or shorter, the change in climate cycles would have led to a significantly different human history. The warming periods that led to the rise of empires, would have happened at different times and locations.
Here's an interesting video that does a reasonably good job of describing some of the basics about our sun:
Fun fact: A cup of protons would be the strongest possible acid - if you could keep all those protons in a cup. So, think of the core of the sun as being like a super acid. (As if that matters.)
All of that is the 'official' version of how we believe the sun works. Of course, the age of the sun and how long it takes for light to reach the surface is pure theory. They don't know who God is, so they aren't going to know how the universe can be six thousand years old. But, their other theories - like what's at the center of the sun and how the corona can be hotter than the sun's interior - are actually based on some pretty good observations.
However, notice something important - solar magnetism. There's a lot of it. It's powerful. It causes ginormous explosions of energy from the sun. And, it will be the number two cause for why Ezekiel's Fire knocks our civilization down. (God is always number one.)
Unfortunately, our knowledge of the sun is severely limited. We can't get very close, and we even have a hard time looking at it. We can measure what it produces, but looking inside our sun is impossible. This is why it is such a good idea to look at other stars which have the same characteristics as our sun to see what could be in our sun's future. And yes, we're looking at stars like our own, but for all the wrong reasons.
As I mentioned in my introduction, the Kepler Space Telescope was built and launched for the sole purpose of finding planets like ours, that might be able to sustain life. And, not a single word was said about wanting to know if stars like our sun have a tendency to emit civilization killing flares. And, it took almost three years for someone to have the temerity to mention that Kepler was seeing flares so big that they could only be called superflares.
Subsequently, governments around the world realized our danger and spent billions of dollars to launch space telescopes to determine when the next superflare from our sun would happen.
Oh, wait. They didn't do that.
Instead of doing the one thing that would help us understand the likelihood of a superflare destroying us, they decided to waste more money looking for planets orbiting other stars. Even if a thousand years passes before Jesus Returns, there is literally no way that humans will ever colonize Mars - let alone planets around other stars. We're just too corrupt, greedy and foolish to be able to do so. We spent a billion dollars looking for planets we'll never touch (Kepler + TESS + ground observatories + etc.), and not a dime on searching for the one thing that will knock us back to the stone age. But, I'm getting a little ahead of myself.
When NASA launched the Kepler Space Telescope in 2009, scientists around the world were looking forward to seeing evidence of planets like our own, in orbit around stars like our Sun. And, they found lots of G-class stars with planets. But, what is absolutely astounding was their inability to see absolute evidence of complete disaster.
Even now, when you search for a description of the Kepler Space Telescope, you’ll be lucky to see anything about the superflares that it recorded. And, we only know about them because a Japanese astronomer at Kyoto University got a bunch of 1st year undergrad students to comb through the data.
If it weren’t for Professor Kazunari Shibata, we would probably still not know that our sun has the ability to hit us with a solar flare ten thousand times more powerful than the biggest flare ever recorded in human history. But, even with conclusive evidence, astrophysicists are still pushing back against the idea that our sun could destroy our civilization with such a big burst of energy.
How is it possible for 99% of astrophysicists to ignore such explosions of light from stars that are exactly like our own sun?
Sheer human stupidity.
Before 2012, no astrophysicist was willing to contemplate the ability of our sun to emit superflares. That's why Dr. Shibata had to use first year undergraduate students to help him comb through data from the Kepler Space Telescope. Others who could help, weren't interested.
After all, everyone said that solar superflares were impossible.
However, the one thing that made Dr. Shibata unique was his specialization in astrophysical jets - the massive streams of ionized matter, ejected out into the universe by black holes, neutron stars and protostars. And, this specialization helped him understand the huge magnetic arcs of plasma on our sun that lead to solar flares. This led him to wonder if similar stars exhibited the same kinds of flares that he was seeing.
Here is a half hour lecture by Professor Kazunari Shibata, in 2019:
Just after the six minute mark, Dr. Shibata says something interesting about the massive amounts of magnetic energy stored in sunspots that often lead to solar flares:
"We know [the] physics already but [the] exact mechanism [is] still not yet completely solved."
When he says 'not yet completely solved', you should interpret that as, "we don't have a clue". And, this is the core problem that we are having with solar physics. Since Physicists think that certain events are impossible, they won't study them. This means that the burden of finding out how massive amounts of magnetic energy can accumulate on the sun's surface, is in the hands of very, very few scientists willing to study it.
The Impact Of Solar Flares On The Body
And, since this symposium also dealt with Astrobiology, Dr. Shibata mentioned something fascinating, after the 15 minute mark. He said:
Then, in 2008 in [an] IAU regional meeting in China, I heard a very interesting [and] strange talk by a Russian researcher. He described [that] when [a] solar flare occurred, traffic accidents occurred more frequently and patient's health in hospital became worse, and he proposed 'Heliobiology' [as a] new research subject. And, I was very surprised ... I immediately asked him why, and he [said] flares cause geomagnetic storm of god [?]. Then such a disturbance affects the blood, because the hemoglobin in blood has iron that is affected by a magnetic field, and then blood pressure may change. So, [in] traffic people cannot control [their] car, and also patient[s] in hospital - [their] blood pressure changes for worse.
Then amazingly, one month later, again in another IAU symposium, one Bulgarian researcher showed this interesting graph - the relationship between blood pressure and geomagnetic storm strength and some positive correlation, and again I was very surprised.
The presentation that he heard in August of 2008 in China, was this one given by Dr. Elchin Babayev:
Sun-Earth interaction: potential effects of solar activity and related geomagnetic disturbances on human health state on the Earth (middle latitudes) Proceedings of the 10th Asian-Pacific Regional IAU Meeting 2008 (APRIM-2008), August 3-6, 2008, Kunming, Yunnan, China
This was from Dr. Babayev's paper, published four months before:
Since he was coming from Azerbaijan, Dr. Babayev might not be completely Russian, but he has collaborated with Dr. Vladimir Obridko, who very much is:
The second symposium that he refers to, was focused on Universal Heliophysical Processes and occurred in September, 2008, in Ionnina, Greece. This is where he heard Bulgarian researcher Dr. Svetla Dimitrova give this lecture:
The graph that Dr. Shibata showed in his presentation also appears in this 2006 paper published by Dr. Dimitrova:
This is important to note because the Bible also mentions the biological effects of Ezekiel's Fire. You can find a verse that directly refers to this, here:
4 In that day,” says the Lord, “I will strike every horse with confusion, and its rider with madness; I will open My eyes on the house of Judah, and will strike every horse of the peoples with blindness.
– Zechariah 12:4 (NKJV)
In my chapter on Zechariah, I focus on what happens to the 'horses'. But, the biophysical effects of this solar event will result in 'madness'. We will not only SEE the increase in brightness from the sun, but we'll also FEEL the coronal mass ejection (CME) when it races past earth. And for some reason, it will drive us mad.
Then, near the end of his lecture, he makes some vital points that we will need to reference later. Before his study on superflares, no one believed that stars like our sun could produce them. So, in the Fall of 2010, he got five 1st year undergrad students to search the data coming from the Kepler Space Telescope. These students didn't know astronomy, so they were completely free of bias. They found 365 superflares from 148 solar-type stars. These observed that these superflares increased the brightness of these stars by 1% to 10%. And, using statistical analysis, they found that a superflare 1000 times more powerful than the Carrington Event would occur once every 5000 years.
Unfortunately, for those of us trying to figure out what Isaiah 30:26, an increase in brightness by even 10% is not nearly enough. Isaiah says that the sun will be as bright as SEVEN DAYS. That's an increase of 600%, not 10%. But, we'll talk about that, later.
The main point to take away from this lecture is this:
We've only known about superflares from our sun for less than a decade.
What ELSE have we missed?
Later on, we'll discover that our sun has the ability to blast the solar system with small nova events that fit the description laid out by Isaiah, perfectly.
Oh, and just to be absolutely clear:
If/when a superflare hits earth, all electrical systems all over the world would be destroyed.
Not a single electrical grid or power station will be generating electricity, anywhere. For a very, very long time. Later on, we'll see some videos that give a far more optimistic view, but there's no way that something a thousand times greater than the Carrington Event could leave ANYTHING running unless it was protected by something like a Faraday Cage.
A Longer, More Detailed Discussion
A few months later, in February of 2020, Dr. Shibata received the George Ellery Hale Prize which is the Solar Physics prize handed out every year by the American Astronomical Society. And, I'm disgusted that he didn't get get something better than this, "oh, you're retiring, so let's give you a prize." He's not just one of the best solar physicists on the planet. He's the most important physicist in 50 years.
His discovery that our sun shoots out flares that can be ten thousand times bigger than the Carrington Event, should have caused a sea change in astrophysics. All the space agencies around the world should have stopped what they were doing and started looking for stars like our own that emit superflares. But, because they're morons, they didn't.
Here is the talk that Dr. Shibata gave, in June of 2020:
(The discussion about superflares begins at 36:40)
By that time, Dr. Shibata had already retired, but he still had important things to say. And, the core point that you should take away from that talk is that our sun is highly magnetic in a very complex way. And, it is magnetic energy that is the source of the massive solar flares that we are concerned about.
If you want to know more about what Dr. Shibata is saying, look into solar "magnetic plasma" and "magnetic reconnection". Those two subjects are at the heart of Ezekiel's Fire because it will be a gigantic magnetic reconnection event that will involve magnetic plasmas, all of which will explode so massively - with such brightness - that the outer shell of the sun will be blasted out into the solar system. And, for a moment in time, the Sun will be as bright as seven days (Isaiah 30:26). But, we're getting a little ahead of ourselves.
The reason why Dr. Shibata and his graduate students have been able to understand superflares, is due to Dr. Shibata's focus on jets - not airplanes, but massive streams of energy ejected out into the universe by black holes, neutron stars and protostars. He thought that these jets were caused by gravitational forces, but to make sure, he looked at our sun. That's when he saw something different - magnetism.
In the 1980s, they discovered spinning jets coming from our sun. Only magnetism could cause these jets of energy to twist in the way being observed. So, Dr. Shibata started looking more closely at how magnetism was the key component to these astrophysical jets. The problem is that it has taken decades for physicists to come around to this idea. But, that didn't keep him from being drawn towards looking at the jets of energy exploding out from the sun - especially solar flares.
Up to the early 2000s, many astrophysicists were unwilling to accept many of the magnetic models that described what was happening on the sun. Then, solar satellites were launched that could see more clearly how solar flares occurred. The magnetic reconnection models were proven correct in every way.
Then the Kepler Space Telescope was launched in 2009, and a stream of data started flowing in - describing events on and around stars that were like our own. And, Dr. Shibata wondered if they could find evidence of flares on these stars. No one else was looking for this evidence, so he and his students started looking in the fall of 2010.
365 superflares on 148 Solar-type stars
Then they did a statistical analysis to try and understand how often such flares would occur on our own sun, and at what strength. Here was they discovered:
Superflares 100 times larger than the Carrington Event occur every 500 years.
(Meaning, we're toast, the next time that happens.)
Furthermore, we have evidence from 8th century tree rings in Japan and even historical Japanese documents from the 6th century. Yet, at the same time, we still have astrophysicists who are unable to accept the evidence of superflare activity in the past, and the surety that a superflare will happen in the future. In fact, it will probably take decades for the scientific community to accept that such solar events are possible.
By that time, a superflare will probably have already taken down our civilization.
Unfortunately, it's actually a lot worse than that. Much worse - because we haven't even looked at small nova events. As bad as a superflare would be, a nova event would be worse. And, we have evidence that these rare events are occurring in our galaxy.
Here's another, much shorter video that does a good job of summarizing some of what we know about superflares in under three minutes:
How ironic that no mention was made of the more comprehensive study done by Dr. Shibata and his team. People just aren't paying attention. But, also notice what they say about superflares:
200 years ago, we wouldn't have noticed.
Except for an increase in auroras, we wouldn't have noticed a thing. We would have been completely unaffected.
The Problem With Superflares
However, there's a problem with the claiming that Ezekiel's Fire is a superflare. I used to make that claim, until I realized that superflares don't emit enough visible light to conform to Isaiah 30:26. Any superflare that makes the sun as bright as seven days would probably kill us. And, we have some observations that clarify this.
With even the largest known solar flares, the flash of light is never visible to the naked eye. You would need to be looking at the sun through a special telescope to actually see the increase in brightness.
The largest solar flare and CME event ever recorded occurred just before noon on September 1st, 1859. Amateur astronomers, Richard Carrington and Richard Hodgson, both had telescopes pointed at the sun. They were recording the shape and size of the sun spots that they were seeing, when they suddenly saw a flash of light. Just 17 hours and 36 minutes later, a Coronal Mass Ejection hit Earth, causing telegraph lines to burn and huge auroras to light up the night sky.
We call this the Carrington Event, because Richard Carrington was better able to explain what had occurred - in addition to maybe having more friends in the Royal Astronomical Society. Remember that if you want your name in the history books, who you know is more important that what you know.
Here's a fun discussion of solar flares and the Carrington Event:
However, notice the optimism. The narrator assumes that our power grids are well managed and that damage can be prevented. Unfortunately, I don't think that we'd get off so easily. But, Kurzgesagt has a sense of humor, so they get a pass.
Here's a little more history of that Carrington Event:
Simon Whistler lays out more of the history of the Carrington Event. He even mentions poor Richard Hodgson who also witnessed the same flash from the sun, but barely got an honorable mention. Simon also asks us to think about what would happen when the power goes out. However, I think that he and many others are missing something important.
When complex systems break, rebuilding them only works when the 'replacement parts' are nearby and stockpiled. Big parts that are hand made with smaller parts over 18 months on the other side of the planet, might not ever arrive. And, I'm describing the big transformers that are only made in Asia and are used by every power station on the planet.
What if the power grids of both Asia AND North America were burned out?
Who would build the replacement transformers?
How would they get to North America?
A Really Big Superflare Would Kill Us
The Carrington Event was classified as an X45 class solar flare. If another such flare would hit Earth, trillions of dollars in damage would result and untold loss of life. It would be absolutely terrible, and we had a close call on July 23rd, 2012, when the CME of a similar sized solar flare missed Earth by nine days. But, as with all other recorded solar flares, you could not have seen them without the aid of a telescope.
But, what if the flare was 10,000 times stronger?
Well, if an X450,000 class solar flare hit us, we'd be toast.
The Kepler Space Telescope has recorded such superflares emitted from stars just like our own. But, there's a problem with thinking of Ezekiel's Fire as a superflare.
Because if our sun shot an X450,000 superflare at us, we would only see the sun as being 30% brighter and not seven times brighter, and that doesn't fit Isaiah 30:26.
Worse, we're not sure how much of Earth could survive a superflare. It would do more than just knock out all electricity and wipe out our civilization. It would scorch a big part of Earth and even rip away some of our atmosphere. It also might kill so many plants and animals that it's hard to see how anyone would survive. Of course, surviving a superflare would depend on a number of factors, so we're in the area of conjecture here.
The irony is that the movie Knowing (starring Nicholas Cage), made such a superflare event the central premise of the movie. That movie came out in 2009 and critics at the time, thought that such surperflares were impossible. But, a couple of years later, Kazunari Shibata proved them very, very wrong. And, I will be talking about Dr. Shibata in another chapter.
But, is the Bible describing a superflare?
Even an Earth-killing superflare would not produce enough light to make the noticeably seven times brighter and the moon as bright as the sun. The Book of Isaiah isn't talking about a flash of light, but a sustained brightness. But, there is a way for the sun to appear seven times brighter without killing everyone on earth - by launching most of the energy in other directions than earth.
A Small Nova Event
This is where we go beyond the current boundaries of science, since no prominent astrophysicist believes that our sun can blow off its outer shell in a nova event - at least, not until after it becomes a red giant. Of course, you already know that prominent astrophysicists thought the same thing about superflares. And now, we don't. So, we should look at novae (plural of nova), especially since we are completely out of other possibilities.
Astronomers only recognize two types of novae:
Nova - a white dwarf star grabs hydrogen from a companion star until the stolen hydrogen ignites and explodes
Supernova - a star that uses up most of its hydrogen, which causes it to expand into a Red Giant, which then becomes unstable and destroys itself in a ginormous explosion - sometimes leaving behind a neutron star.
Yes, they have sub-classifications, but those are just variations on a theme. But, there is more in the universe than is explained by their theolog... err ...science. And, it is all about the one thing that we really don't understand about our sun and the stars:
Solar flares are caused by magnetic events. Superflares are caused by magnetic events. Coronal mass ejections are caused by magnetic events. The heliosphere that surrounds and protects our solar system is completely magnetic. And, none of that should surprise us, since the sun is the biggest magnet in our solar system.
In fact, take a look at how magnetic the sun is:
And then, here's some extra proof that solar flares are magnetic and that we don't understand everything about that:
(And, if you come away from that video with a Glasgow accent
bouncing around in your head, don't say that I didn't warn you. )
Now, think carefully about what Dr. Flectcher said. Magnetic fields get tangled and twisted. Those tangles and twists cause energy to build up in the sun, and the more tangled and twisted they are, the more energy held in those magnetic fields. And, if there are enough of them scattered across the surface of the sun... and if they all let go at once... you could have the outer shell of the sun blast outwards into the solar system. In other words....
However, it wouldn't be quite like the standard novae and supernovae that we've seen in our telescopes. In fact, if you missed the initial burst of light, you'd miss it completely. In fact, this kind of magnetic nova would cause our sun to disappear to outside observers - the mythical little green men living somewhere out in the galaxy.
Why would the sun disappear?
Because lots of material would be blasted out into space, which would cool into a fine dust.
Of course, this is where we're having to work extra hard to connect Bible prophecy with the science, but I think that we're still on pretty firm ground. Up to this point we've been talking about individual solar flares and superflares blasting out small parts of the sun's outer atmosphere - the corona. But, a massive buildup of magnetic energy across the sun's surface would do far more than that.
Think of a solar flare as a stick of dynamite. If you drill a hole in the side of a limestone cliff, and set off that one stick of dynamite, you'll get a big bang and some dust. But, if you drill multiple holes and set off multiple sticks of dynamite, the whole face of the cliff will come down. And, we would expect the same thing to happen on our sun.
Multiple magnetic fields all across the sun, twisting, tangling and gathering energy before blowing up all at once.
To refresh your memory, here's what the Bible says about that moment in time:
12 I looked when He opened the sixth seal, and behold, there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became like blood. 13 And the stars of heaven fell to the earth, as a fig tree drops its late figs when it is shaken by a mighty wind. 14 Then the sky receded as a scroll when it is rolled up, and every mountain and island was moved out of its place.
- Revelation 6:12-14 (NKJV)
25 There will be on every high mountain
And on every high hill
Rivers and streams of waters,
In the day of the great slaughter,
When the towers fall.
26 Moreover the light of the moon will be as the light of the sun,
And the light of the sun will be sevenfold,
As the light of seven days,
In the day that the Lord binds up the bruise of His people
And heals the stroke of their wound.
- Isaiah 30:25-26 (NKJV)
Those of you who have been reading When Gog Comes, will know that both passages are talking about the same moment in time. And yes, I know how hard it is to get your head around that. So, if you have trouble accepting that, it's okay. But for the moment, just focus on the 'sky receding like a scroll when it is rolled up'.
That 'rolling up' of the sky, is that massive shell of material spreading outwards into the solar system, obscuring the stars in a line, as it races by earth. It would look like someone was wiping the stars away. However, those of you who lived in the midwest of the United States, you've undoubtedly seen a vast storm clouds roll through. It's like someone drew a moving line in the sky - on the one side bright sky and sunshine, on the other shadow and rain. And, we are seeing more and more evidence of this in our galaxy.
Early in 2020, we saw the light from Betelgeuse drop by 70%, and after much shouting and arm waving, scientists concluded that it had ejected a massive cloud of dust. This cloud was so big that it obscured part of our view of that star for several months. We also noticed that the star brightened just before that eruption of dust. And, while Betelgeuse is a lot different from our own sun, it gives us a possible explanation for the stars that have been disappearing - and why Isaiah 30 and Revelation 6 have a sound, scientific basis. So, we'll need to look for disappearing stars, and just like our discovery of superflares, they're looking for these stars for all the wrong reasons.
On July 12th, 1950, the Palomar Observatory was photographing the night sky. Two of those pictures overlapped each other and were taken half an hour apart. In the second picture, nine stars had disappeared, and have not been seen since. And, we still don't know why they're gone.
Fast forward 70 years, and we now have the VASCO Project - aka, Vanishing and Appearing Sources during a Century of Observations Project. Launched by Dr. Beatriz Villarroel of the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (NORDITA), they are looking for stars that have been around a while and then disappear. As of late 2020, they identified 713 stars that have disappeared, and they want to know why. (Although, they want the reason to be aliens.)
No, really. They're looking for aliens. And, they think that really smart aliens would build gigantic structures around stars to harvest energy. But, that's crazy 'cuz aliens don't exist. (sorry)
Just like with Betelgeuse, the most likely explanation for the disappearance of these stars is a massive ejection of dust that obscures our ability to see that star. The reason for this vast amount of dust could be anything from a superflare, up to a small nova event. But, there's a problem with that explanation.
Astrophysicists don't know how this could occur on main sequence stars like our own, and what scientists cannot explain, they tend to ignore - just like they ignored the data that showed stars like our own sun, do eject massive superflares. But, once in a generation, someone like Kazunari Shibata comes along and makes them pay attention.
Dr. Shibata talks about magnetism, and he points out that superflares are caused by a buildup of magnetic energy on the surface of a star. So, I have a question:
If a buildup of magnetism could cause something that scientists thought was impossible...
...then why not a magnetism-induced nova event, also?
Our Sun is a great big ball of magnetic energy, and that magnetism is not as stable as we would like. More importantly, we are seeing a lot of stars that are also highly magnetic and not very stable. And, we are seeing too many stars flash brightly and then disappear behind a cloud of dust.
Unless someone can come along with a better explanation, it appears that Isaiah and Revelation are describing a small nova event of some kind. Some might claim that this could be a kind of 'solar volcano' that would eject a massive amount of dust out into the solar system, and I'd be happy with that explanation were it not for other passages in the Bible that describe a massive, civilization destroying EMP effect and a global earthquake that knocks down every tall building around the world.
Looking for stars that disappear is a fairly new thing for astronomers to be doing. It takes a lot of effort and big budgets, but it seems that they are trying to get a grasp on which stars do this, and why. (And, they want to find aliens.) But, until they discover some other reason, I will use this term:
I didn't coin the term, and I certainly wasn't the first to raise the possibility of a small nova event occurring in our future. The guy who gave us this term is Doug Vogt. Ben Davidson picked up on his theories and expanded them. Doug and Ben are not scientists, but they have noticed evidence indicating that something really big happened a few thousand years ago. They think that it was a nova, small enough to be called a micro nova. And, when I look at what the Bible says, I think that they're right. So, until better evidence comes along, 'micronova' it is.
So, how would such a micronova occur?
Most scientists would claim that gravity is the only way to create a nova event, and they shake their head at the sheer impossibility of a magnetically induced nova event happening. Astronomers have had their heads stuck in 'gravity' for so long that their brains got mushed. But, a few solar physicists understand magnetism and plasma physics. So, we'll look at a magnetic explanation.
Just as solar flares are caused by loops of magnetic energy on the surface of our sun, lots and lots of such magnetic energy could cause a micronova. It would need to be a ginormous amount of energy, and it would need to be over a vast area of the Sun's surface. And, we would probably see it happening.
As this magnetic energy accumulated, the sun's surface would become more and more distorted until the energy could not be contained any longer. Think of it like a spring that gets wound tighter and tighter, until it explodes outward in a flash of energy and dust.
Great loops of magnetism and plasma will grow out of the sun's surface. They will get bigger and multiply around the sun. Then, one of those loops will suffer a magnetic reconnection, causing a cascade of eruptions rippling around the sun in seconds. The sun will increase in brightness by 600%, and a shell of solar dust will billow outwards.
Ben Davidson also believes that this will be a 'magnetic event'. He points to the geologic record, evidence on the moon and historical records to show that this has already happened, and will do so again. He believes that the main trigger will be something that he calls the 'Galactic Current Sheet', which astronomers call the Galactic Magnetic Field, or GMF.
Will the interaction between our sun's magnetic field and the GMF trigger a nova event?
That's hard to say. The magnetic field of our galaxy doesn't seem strong enough to cause our sun to initiate a small nova, but since there's a lot about our star's magnetism that we do not understand, it's hard to discount what Ben is saying. But, the astrophysical trigger doesn't matter.
What matters is that God will cause this explosion on the Sun. We will always have more questions than answers over how this event occurs, but there cannot be any question over why and Who.
The Cosmic Dust Theory
By the way, another view is that our sun will accumulate a large amount of cosmic dust from an unknown interstellar source. The idea is that our solar system could move through a cloud of dust that would coat the outer surface of the sun, causing pressure to build up inside. When the pressure gets strong enough, the sun would blow off its outer layer in a small nova event. However, we haven't seen this dust or its accumulation on the sun, so we can't give this dust theory much credit until we get evidence. But, it is true that our solar system does move through space in an orbit around our Milky Way galaxy, and it could hit a big cloud of dust... but, it's really, really unlikely.
Glass On The Moon
Then, we have one tiny bit of evidence of a previous solar event that was so powerful that it melted part of the surface of the moon, turning it into glass. Unfortunately, this evidence is obscured by glass formed by lava flows on the moon and the impact heating from meteor strikes. Furthermore, we have only spent a very, very small amount of time on the moon, and were only able to cover a small area where the Apollo missions landed.
The one bit of evidence that we have comes from a report on the Apollo 11 mission by Dr. Thomas Gold, at the time Director, Center for Radio-Physics and Space Research, Cornell University. He had proposed a special camera for the astronauts to use, for taking closeup images of lunar soil. Seventeen pictures were taken with this special camera, and one (or more) of them immediately grabbed Dr. Gold's attention:
"One of those is outstanding in being wholly unexpected and possibly of consequence not only to lunar geology but also to aspects of the study of the Sun, the Earth, and other bodies of the solar system."
That quote and the ones that follow come from "Apollo 11 Observations of a Remarkable Glazing Phenomenon on the Lunar Surface" pages 193-197, the Apollo 11 Preliminary Science Report (NASA SP-214). Dr. Gold went on to describe five possible reasons for how the glass in that photograph was formed. But, the most logical reason was the most chilling:
"Among the interpretations discussed here, only radiative heating seems to be able to account for the major observational data; and it accounts well for both the distribution over the ground and the detailed geometrical arrangements in which the glazing is found, for it is in just those places that the temperature would be expected to be at a maximum. We must therefore seek clues as to the nature of such a flash of radiation.
The time of occurrence of the flash heating would have to have been sufficiently recent for micrometeorites not to have destroyed the glaze, nor for the mechanisms that redistribute the lunar soil to have blanketed the objects. Estimates of the micrometeorite rate at the present time vary considerably, but it seems very unlikely that the glaze could be maintained on the surface for as much as 100000 yr and probably not for more than 30000. The event in question would thus have to have taken place within this geologically very recent past. Several possibilities have to be discussed."
He then looks into what kind of 'radiative' heating could explain what was in that picture.
"The flash heating, if it originated from the Sun, overhead at the time in the lunar region in flared up for a period of between 10 and 100 sec to a luminosity of more than 100 times its present value. What could be the origin of such a flareup?
Solar flares, as they are known at the present time, only reach a total energy output of less than 1033 ergs. The quantity we are discussing here is at least 4 X 1036 ergs for an isotropic source, or 2 X 1036 ergs for a localized source on the Sun that radiates into a hemisphere only. While it cannot be ruled out completely that flares of such an intensity could occur, we have no evidence in this regard, although some earlier speculations exist (ref. 9-2).
The phenomenon may not be in the nature of a flare, but in the nature of a very minor novalike outburst of the Sun. The nova phenomenon among the stars is not understood, but it is normally concerned with a different class of star, and the intensity of the outburst, up to 100 times the normal luminosity, for a period of only tens of seconds every few tens of thousands of years, would be a phenomenon that would not have been recognized astronomically among stars of the solar type. One can therefore not completely rule out the possibility that stars like the Sun do have occasional instabilities of internal origin, but very much weaker than the novae."
I find it ironic that 40 years later, Dr. Shibata would have discovered that our sun actually does emit superflares stronger than 2 X 1036 ergs. Unfortunately, scientists at the time didn't think that such flaring could occur on our sun, and this is probably part of the reason why Dr. Gold's observations were shouted down. Dr. Gold died in 2004, eight years before a study would be published, showing that such solar events are inevitable.
I'm betting that if we sent probes to the moon, looking for evidence of a nova event from our sun, we'd find it. But, I'm afraid that scientists are more interested in finding aliens or exciting projects like lunar bases. They do not want to look for evidence of civilization-destroying solar events.
So, There You Have It
To me, the evidence is conclusive. Science and the Bible both point to an event in our future that will knock down what we think of as 'modern civilization'. It will be the biggest solar event since The Great Flood, and life will never be the same again - at least for those who survive.
Eventually, civilization will return. A global economy will reform, and the Beast System that we currently live in, will be resurrected by a Man of Fierce Countenance that the Bible calls the Antichrist.
However, we're not done yet. We've only covered what the sun will do. We now have to look at what will happen on earth, and our next step will be to look at what happens when a Solar Electromagnetic Pulse takes out all of our electric and electronic technology.
© John Little. November 2021. All rights reserved.
May God preserve the words that are true
and cast away those that are not.